Data provided by Applied Health
side effects, nutrient depletions, herbal interactions and health notes:
• This drug may cause hyperglycemia, use with caution in diabetics.1
• B-6 levels may become depleted with theophylline use.2
• Consistent amounts of dietary carbohydrate and protein are necessary to maintain proper blood levels of the drug.3
• Avoid alcohol.4
• Theophylline may cause calcium, magnesium , sodium and potassium depletions..5
• Capsicum, black pepper, long pepper and cayenne may all increase theophylline absorption.6
• Combining theophylline and Ma huang or ephedra may cause excess weight loss and increased nervous stimulation.7
• Cocoa, cola, black tea, guarana and mate all contain caffeine and may increase theophylline levels or increase it's side effects.8
• St. John's Wort can decrease theophylline levels.9
• Bronchodilators may have adverse effects on the heart if combined with other cardioactive agents. Herbs that may possess cardioactive qualities include : black hellebore, calamus, cereus, cola, coltsfoot, devil's claw, European mistletoe, fenugreek, fumitory, digitalis leaf, hedge mustard, figwort, lily of the valley roots, motherwort, pleurisy root, squill bulb leaf scales, white horehound, mate, scotch broom flower, shepherd's purse, and wild carrot10
References1 Smith AP, Banks J, Cheong, B, Gunawardena: Mechanisms of abnormal glucose metabolism during the treatment of acute severe asthma. Quart J Med. 1992; NS82:71-80.
1 Pronsky, Z Food Medication Interactions, 11th edition, 1999
2 Martinez de Haas MG, Poels PJ, de Weert CJ, et al. Subnormal vitamin B6 levels in theophylline users. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1997;141:2176-79 [in Dutch].
2 Ubbink JB, Delport R, Becker PJ, Bissbort S. Evidence of a theophylline-induced vitamin B6 deficiency caused by noncompetitive inhibition of pyridoxal kinase. J Lab Clin Med. 1989 Jan;113(1):15-22.
2 Delport R, Ubbink JB, Serfontein WJ, Becker PJ, Walters L. Vitamin B6 nutritional status in asthma: the effect of theophylline therapy on plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and pyridoxal levels. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1988;58(1):67-72.
2 Delport R, Ubbink JB, Vermaak WJ, Becker PJ. Theophylline increases pyridoxal kinase activity independently from vitamin B6 nutritional status. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1993 Mar;79(3):325-33.
3 Pronsky, Z Food Medication Interactions, 11th edition, 1999
3 Anderson KE, McCleery RB, Vesell ES, Vickers FF, Kappas A. Diet and cimetidine induce comparable changes in theophylline metabolism in normal subjects. Hepatology. 1991 May;13(5):941-6.
4 Pronsky, Z Food Medication Interactions, 11th edition, 1999
4 Facts and Comparisons, Clinisphere 2.0, Wolters Kluwer Company, 2000
5 Howes LG. Which drugs affect potassium? Drug Saf. 1995 Apr;12(4):240-4. Review.
5 Hagley MT, Traeger SM, Schuckman H. Pronounced metabolic response to modest theophylline overdose. Ann Pharmacother. 1994 Feb;28(2):195-6.
5 Knutsen R, Bohmer T, Falch J. Intravenous theophylline-induced excretion of calcium, magnesium and sodium in patients with recurrent asthmatic attacks. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1994 Apr;54(2):119-25.
5 Smith SR, Gove I, Kendall MJ. Beta agonists and potassium. Lancet 1985;1:1394.
6 Brinker, F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. Eclectic Medical Publications, 1998
7 Brinker, F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. Eclectic Medical Publications, 1998
8 Brinker, F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. Eclectic Medical Publications, 1998
9 Nebel A, Schneider BJ, Baker RA, et al. Potential metabolic interaction between St. John's wort and theophylline. Ann Pharmacother 1999;33:502.
10 Newall CA, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-care Professionals. London: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1996
10 PDR for Herbal Medicines, 2nd edition, Medical Economics Company, 2000
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The information in Drug Watch is provided as a courtesy to NewsTarget readers by Applied Health Solutions in cooperation with Healthway Solutions. Although the information is presented with scientific references, we do not wish to imply that this represents a comprehensive list of considerations about any specific drug, herb or nutrient. Nor should this information be considered a substitute for the advice of your doctor, pharmacist, or other healthcare practitioner. Please read the disclaimer about the intentions and limitations of the information provided on these pages. It is important to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all other drugs and nutritional supplements that you are taking if they are recommending a new medication. Copyright © 2007 by Applied Health Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.