The researchers used cross-sectional and longitudinal studies and found that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes the immune system to generate poly-clonal, humoral and cellular immune responses that target multiple viral proteins while establishing long-term immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and a host of other coronaviruses.
After eight months, the CD4 and CD8 T cells were able to recognize distinct viral epitope regions and displayed durable, poly-functional immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and a host of other coronaviruses, namely HKU1 and OC43. The natural infection also boosts antibody titers to SARS-CoV-1. The CD4 T cells target the SARS-CoV-2 proteins equally, promising a comprehensive immune response. The CD8 T cells specifically target the nucleoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, promising precision immune responses to future coronaviruses.
The neutralizing and binding antibodies that were detected post-infection exhibit a bi-phasic decay, with an extended half-life greater than 200 days. This indicates the development of longstanding plasma cells that can recognize and neutralize future SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins.
The researchers used the Mesoscale multiplex assay to measure IgG, IgA, and IgM antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 proteins. The researchers measured binding antibodies to the full-length spike protein, to the receptor-binding domain (RBD), and to the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike protein. These results were compared to control blood samples, which were obtained from pre-pandemic individuals vaccinated with either yellow fever or influenza vaccines. The antibodies that bind to the spike RBD and NTD epitopes are able to block the SARS-Co-2 infection of the respiratory epithelial cells. These natural antibodies inhibit interactions between the viral spike and the ACE2 receptor. The IgG antibodies spiked by 92 percent in covid-19 convalescent recipients, when compared to the controls. The IgG response was robust after infection and predictably declined before stabilizing again, indicating long-living plasma cells that can convey immunity long into the future.
A natural infection also provides spike specific IgG+ memory B cells. These B cells persist eight months after infection recovery, providing a rapid antibody response if the individual is re-exposed to coronaviruses in the future.
Full exposure and natural immunity may be the most important concept going forward, for it sets up the immune system to adapt to future mutations (and laboratory changes) to coronavirus strains. During the study, the researchers accidentally found that the pre-pandemic healthy controls had long standing antibody responses to common endemic alpha and beta coronaviruses, reinforcing the importance of exposure and recovery.
The fear-driven, isolationist and intubation approach to public health will inevitably weaken and kill off the population. The plasma from healthy individuals will provide a significant immune boost to patients struggling with this infectious disease.
Durable immune memory is essential to prevent severe disease and protect against re-infection, yet the effective strategies for mounting a healthy immune response have been censored and suppressed by the mainstream government, media, and public health response.
There is NO moral, lawful or scientific reason to lock down, segregate, and kick unvaccinated people to the curb, for their immunity or impending immunity is essential to public health, a BENEFIT to all. Natural immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is durable, comprehensive, and promotes herd immunity, protecting the fragile and those with underlying health conditions.