Researchers at Nihon University School of Dentistry in Japan investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of an extract from Cynara scolymus (artichoke) and its pharmacologically effective compound cynaropicirin on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Their findings were published in the Journal of Natural Medicines.
Periodontal diseases are a major public health problem affecting over half of the adult population worldwide.
LPS produced by the periodontal bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis induces the expression of inflammatory cytokines that promote inflammatory bone destruction.
Evidence suggests periodontal diseases are involved in the onset and progression of several systemic diseases, such as pneumonia and diabetes.
Although removing periodontopathic bacteria by brushing is a standard practice, it is not effective in all cases.
There's a need for new treatments for periodontal diseases that complement or replace brushing.
Cynaropicrin is a sesquiterpene lactone found in artichoke.
Besides its anti-inflammatory effects, the researchers also tested it anti-osteoclastogenic effects on RAW264.7 cells induced by the receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL).
They found that cynaropicrin inhibited interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6 mRNA expression, as well as protein synthesis, in LPS-stimulated HGFs in a dose-dependent manner.
Cynaropicrin also suppressed the P. gingivalis LPS-induced degradation of IkBa and phosphorylation of NF-kB p65. This suggests that cynaropicrin's ability to prevent P. gingivalis LPS-induced IL-8 and IL-6 expression is due to the inhibition of the NF-kB pathway.
In addition, cynaropicrin dramatically reduced RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation.
Based on these results, the researchers concluded that cynaropicrin from artichoke can prevent periodontal diseases and can be used in the development of more effective treatments.
Hayata M, Watanabe N, Kamio N, Tamura M, Nodomi K, Tanaka K, Iddamalgoda A, Tsuda H, Ogata Y, Sato S, et al. CYNAROPICRIN FROM CYNARA SCOLYMUS L. SUPPRESSES PORPHYROMONAS GINGIVALIS LPS-INDUCED PRODUCTION OF INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN HUMAN GINGIVAL FIBROBLASTS AND RANKL-INDUCED OSTEOCLAST DIFFERENTIATION IN RAW264.7 CELLS. Journal of Natural Medicines. September 14 2018;73(1):114–123. DOI: 10.1007/s11418-018-1250-6