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Discover the Superfood Power of Kale

Friday, July 30, 2010 by: Dr. David Jockers
Tags: kale, superfood, health news

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(NewsTarget) Foods that have an incredible array of health benefits that go well beyond just their nutrient value are considered `super-foods.` Kale is widely regarded as one of the world's most powerful superfoods. It is a member of the Brassica family of vegetables that includes cabbage, collards, and Brussels sprouts. These vegetables are known for their richness in anti-oxidants and sulfur containing phytonutrients.

Some of the hottest nutrients present in kale include the glucosinolates and methyl cysteine sulfoxides. These super-nutrients help to activate detoxifying enzymes in the liver that play an important role in neutralizing carcinogenic substances. One such glucosinolate, sulforaphane, is formed when kale is either chopped or chewed. Sulforaphane has been shown to alter the genetic expression of the liver allowing to more effectively use its detoxification enzymes.

Another glucosinolate phytonutrient present in kale are isothiocyanates. Isothiocyanates have been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis and to cause cancer cell apoptosis. When kale is broken (chopped or chewed) an enzyme myrosinase interacts with glucosinolates to release isothiocyanates. This increases the amount absorbed by the body. However, the absorption of isothiocyanates is lower from cooked than from raw kale. In fact, boiling kale from 9-15 minutes can result in an 18-59 percent decrease in the total glucosinolate content. Steaming or sauteing kale reduces nutrient losses.

Kale is an especially potent source of anti-oxidants. In fact, kale ranks highest among all vegetables in its concentration of the carotenoids beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin. These yellow-orange pigments are critical for the plants defense against excess solar radiation. They have become such a natural health phenomena that the USDA has invested over $800,000 into a four-year "Carotenoid Project." This project has brought together Dr. Dean Kopsell (plant biologist) and Dr. Joanne Curran-Celentano (nutritional scientist). Kopsell and Curran-Celentano are studying the details of carotenoids and their role in human health.

According to Kopsell, plants evolved carotenoids in order to protect themselves from high levels of UV light exposure. "Plants use only about one or two percent of the light energy falling on the leaf surface for photosynthesis," Kopsell says. "In plants, lutein and zeaxanthin play a role in absorbing light outside the red and blue range and funneling it away, in essence acting as a chemical "sun block" that helps protect the pant from excessive radiation." Many have theorized that carotenoids play a similar role when they concentrate in the macula lutea, the region of highest visual acuity in the human eye.

The Curran-Celentano's project analyzed twenty-three varieties of kale and all the genetic, environmental, & geographical factors to maximize the amount of xanthophyll carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. They also modified the sulfur and nitrogen content of soils to alter anti-oxidant content and temper the strong flavors in kale that some people don't like. The researchers discovered the varieties with the highest concentrations had two and a half times the carotenoid levels of those with the lowest concentrations.

These findings indicate that the nutritional value of the kale comes down to the conditions of the soil it was grown in. Soil health is strongly dependent upon the composting, fertilizing, and rotational cycles used by the farmer. It has been shown that organic varieties of kale grown in nutrient rich soil are superior to commercially grown varieties of kale. It is highly recommended to seek out kale from local, organically grown farms and gardens.


Kopsell, Dean, A., Curran-Celentano, Joanne. Variation in Lutein, B-carotene, and Chlorophyll Concentrations among Brassica oleraceae Cultigens and Seasons. 2004. HortScience 39(2): 361-364.

About the author

Dr. David Jockers owns and operates Exodus Health Center in Kennesaw, Ga. He is a Maximized Living doctor. His expertise is in weight loss, customized nutrition & exercise, & structural corrective chiropractic care. For more information go to www.exodushc.com To find a Maximized Living doctor near you go to www.maximizedliving.com

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