Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer attenuates inflammation from gastritis, arthritis, hepatitis
07/04/2019 // Janine Acero // Views

Korean researchers studied the anti-inflammatory properties of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, commonly known as Korean red ginseng, for potentially treating arthritis, gastritis, and hepatitis. Their findings were published in The American Journal of Chinese Medicine.

  • Korean red ginseng (KRG) is an herbal medicine used worldwide and is prepared from P. ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae). Some of its active ingredients, ginsenosides, exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties.
  • Previous studies focused on the anti-inflammatory activities of KRG, but the major anti-inflammatory compounds and the mechanisms of suppressing inflammatory processes have not been fully explored.
  • The researchers aimed to identify inhibitory saponins in KRG to evaluate their efficacy in vivo, and to understand the inhibitory mechanisms.
  • The researchers employed in vitro lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages and in vivo inflammatory mouse conditions, such as collagen (type II)-induced arthritis (CIA), EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-triggered hepatitis. Molecular mechanisms were also verified by real-time PCR, immunoblotting analysis, and reporter gene assays.
  • Of the ginsenosides, ginsenoside Rc (G-Rc) exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and interferons (IFNs).
  • G-Rc also attenuated inflammatory symptoms in CIA, EtOH/HCl-mediated gastritis, and LPS/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-triggered hepatitis without altering toxicological parameters, and without inducing gastric irritation.
  • These anti-inflammatory activities were accompanied by the suppression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 production and the induction of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in mice with CIA. G-Rc also lessened the levels of luciferase activity by IRF-3 and AP-1, but not NF-kappaB.
  • G-Rc reduced TBK1, IRF-3, and ATF2 phosphorylation in the joint and liver tissues of mice with hepatitis.

The researchers concluded that G-Rc may be a major component of KRG with effective anti-inflammatory activities due to its suppression of IRF-3 and AP-1 pathways.

Learn about the other medicinal uses and benefits of Asian ginseng at

Journal Reference:

Yu T, Rhee MH, Lee J, Kim SH, Yang Y, Kim HG, Kim Y, Kim C, Kwak Y-S, Kim J-H, et al. GINSENOSIDE RC FROM KOREAN RED GINSENG (PANAX GINSENG C.A. MEYER) ATTENUATES INFLAMMATORY SYMPTOMS OF GASTRITIS, HEPATITIS AND ARTHRITIS. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 2016;44(03):595–615. DOI: 10.1142/s0192415x16500336

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