Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is the main ingredient in coffee beans. It has been studied for its therapeutic effects, but there are limited studies that have investigated its anticancer properties.
The researchers of the present study used chlorogenic acid complex (CGA7), a standardized decaffeinated water-soluble green coffee bean extract and evaluated its cytotoxic effect on human and mouse cancer cell lines.
The researchers cultured human cervical (HeLa), liver (HepG2), breast (MCF7), and colon cancer (HCT-15, HCT-116) cell lines and mouse B16-F1, EAC, normal cell line MEF (STO).
The researchers found that CGA7 treatment induces dose- and time-dependent apoptosis or cell death in different cancer cell lines.
The CGA7-induced apoptosis was characterized by DNA fragmentation, PARP-1 cleavage, caspase-9 activation, and downregulation of Bcl-2 -- an anti-apoptotic protein -- and upregulation of pro-apoptotic protein BAX.
The findings indicated that CGA7 in green coffee beans is a potent anticancer compound that could be a safe bioactive ingredient for the prevention of cancer. (Related: Six cancer fighting beverages proven to kill cancer cells!)
CGA is a natural compound primarily found in green coffee beans. Studies have shown that it can reduce the risk of diseases such as diabetes and cancer, as well as stimulate weight loss, reduce blood pressure, and improve mood. CGA is most commonly supplemented in the form of green coffee extract.
In a study which appeared in the European Journal of Nutrition, participants with stage 1 hypertension were supplemented with green coffee bean extract. Researchers found that CGA effectively reduced blood pressure and improved blood vessel dilation. In another study published in the Clinical and Experimental Hypertension journal, they found that isolated CGA reduced blood pressure in 28 hypertensive patients.
Multiple studies published in The Journal of International Medical Research and Diabetes Care showed that CGA can reduce insulin and glucose spikes following a meal, resulting in weight and body fat loss. In a study which appeared in the journal Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 16 obese participants were supplemented with green coffee extract for 22 weeks. At the end of the study, the extract reduced the participants' weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage.
In a study published in Nutrition & Diabetes, CGA was found to reduce the levels of blood glucose and fasting HbA1c – which is an indicator of diabetes – in 57 healthy females.
CGA was also found to improve mood, particularly in older people. A study which appeared in Psychopharmacology suggested that three cups of decaffeinated coffee enriched with CGA improved mood and attention in 39 older participants. Another study involving 60 older adults reported reduced feelings of exhaustion, jitteriness and headaches after supplementing with isolated CGA.
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