Phosphatidylserine

Essential fatty acid phosphatidylserine (PS) is powerful prevention for memory loss, Alzheimer's and dementia

Monday, January 09, 2006 by: Dani Veracity
Tags: Phosphatidylserine, Alzheimer's, memory loss

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The link between old age and forgetfulness is cliché enough to be the subject of greeting cards, sitcoms and jokes. We take it for granted so often that very few of us take the time to question why it happens. However, experts may have found the answer in an essential fatty acid called phosphatidylserine.

Our bodies need this phospholipid to build brain cell membranes that are fluid enough to release the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and dopamine, but luckily, our brains normally manufacture enough phosphatidylserine (PS) to keep us in top mental order. However, when we reach middle age, our levels of PS begin to decline -- an effect that is worsened by deficiencies of other essential fatty acids, folic acid or vitamin B12. Because PS is necessary for effective neurotransmission, PS deficiency is linked to mental impairment, including Alzheimer's and non-Alzheimer's dementia, depression and Parkinson's disease among middle-aged and elderly people.

Since PS deficiency is associated with these common age-related conditions, many experts believe that PS supplements can help improve, or even reverse, symptoms. As Elizabeth Somer further explains in her book, Food & Mood, "PS supplements restock brain cell membranes, boosting nerve chemical activity such as dopamine and serotonin, stimulating nerve cell growth, lowering levels of the stress hormones, possibly generating new connections between cells, and stirring activity in all brain centers, especially higher brain centers such as the cortex, hypothalamus and pituitary gland."

In other words, PS supplements may give a 50-year-old the same brainpower as a healthy 20-year-old. Does this sound too good to be true? Well, according to the 2002 Bottom Line Yearbook, "Phosphatidylserine is the only medication that's been proven to reverse age-related memory loss in clinical studies."

Furthermore, these clinical studies are overwhelmingly positive about the amazing abilities of PS. In Alternative Cures, Bill Gottlieb reports that one study demonstrated that PS can reverse the chronological age of neurons by as much as 12 years. Of course, this has enormous implications for people suffering from age-related dementia.

A recent study on men aged 50 and older with non-Alzheimer's dementia found that a three-month regimen of 300 milligrams of PS daily was enough treatment to drastically improve mental function, according to Dr. Russell L. Blaylock's book, Excitotoxins. In one study, Alzheimer's patients experienced cognitive improvements after receiving only 100 milligrams of PS for three months, while another study demonstrated that 400 milligrams of PS per day led to short-term neurological and psychological improvements in people with Alzheimer's.

Though the tested dosages vary, the results add up to one thing: New hope for people suffering from age-related mental decline. The abilities of PS look so promising that phosphatidylserine expert and author Professor Parris Kidd calls it "the single best means for conserving memory and other higher brain functions as we age."

So, how can you explore the benefits of PS supplementation for yourself? Previously, PS supplements were only made from phosphatidylserine isolated from cow brains, posing the problem of mad cow disease. But now, scientists can create PS by putting soy lecithin through an enzymatic process that changes phosphatidylcholine into phosphatidylserine. As PDR for Nutritional Supplements authors Dr. Sheldon Saul Hendler and David Rorvik explain, PS derived from soy differs from that isolated from cow brains by the form of its fatty acids: "Phosphatidylserine from soy lecithin contains mainly polyunsatured fatty acids, while phosphatidylserine derived from bovine brain contains mainly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as some docosahexaenoic acid."

According to Dr. Hendler and Rorvik, the risk of mad cow disease, though hypothetical, is in itself enough to make soy lecithin-derived PS the better option. Furthermore, as an interesting side note, the book Natural Cures and Gentle Medicines reports that there is a product called Brain Gum. Because the gum is fortified with a 40 percent concentration of PS, its creators claim that only three pieces a day can help you learn better and increase your memory and concentration. You can learn more about Brain Gum at www.braingum.com, however, neither I nor Truth Publishing currently endorse this product (we simply haven't tried it yet).

Whichever way you choose to take PS supplements, it may be worth a try, especially if you are already experiencing age-related mental decline. After reviewing more than 3,000 peer-reviewed research papers on PS, Professor Kidd asserts, "The remarkable benefits of PS and its safety in use are now established beyond doubt," in Dr. Mark Stengler's Natural Physician's Healing Therapies. Similarly, in his Vitamin and Mineral Encyclopedia, Dr. Hendler writes that PS "does not appear to have any adverse side effects."

So, how much PS should you take? Many experts believe 300 milligrams daily, taken in three doses of 100 milligrams each, is sufficient, but, of course, you should discuss your dosage information with a health care professional, preferably a naturopath.

The experts speak on phosphatidylserine (PS):

The results of age- and nutrition-related decline in phosphatidylserine

Once we reach middle age, phosphatidylserine and other important brain chemicals decline, which is one reason why our brains don't work as efficiently. There is good evidence that taking phosphatidylserine supplements can help restore brain power.
Earl Mindell's Supplement Bible by Earl Mindell RPh PhD, page 120

Phosphatidylserine plays a major role in determining the integrity and fluidity of brain cell membranes. Normally, the brain can manufacture sufficient levels of phosphatidylserine, but if there is a deficiency of folic acid and vitamin B12, or of essential fatty acids, the brain may not be able to make sufficient phosphatidylserine. Low levels of phosphatidylserine in the brain are associated with impaired mental function and depression in the elderly.
Encyclopedia Of Natural Medicine by Michael T Murray MD Joseph L Pizzorno ND, page 228

(PS) phosphatidylserine plays a major role in determining the integrity and fluidity of brain cell membranes. Membranes are the cells' major work surfaces, and nerve cells especially depend on membranes to carry out their specialized functions. As part of the membrane, PS helps eliminate wastes and improve intercellular communications, cellular movement, and ion transport. Normally, the brain can manufacture sufficient levels of PS, but if there is a deficiency of B-complex vitamins (folic acid and B12) or of essential fatty acids, the brain may not be able to make sufficient PS.
Healing Pets With Nature's Miracle Cures By Henry Pasternak DVM CVA, page 261

Low levels of phosphatidylserine, a type of lipid, in the brain are commonly associated with memory loss. This is an important brain nutrient and is essential for effective neurotransmission. Smart Medicine For Healthier Living by Janet Zand LAc OMD Allan N Spreen MD CNC
James B LaValle RPh ND, page 406

Low levels of phosphatidylserine in the brain are associated with impaired mental function and depression in the elderly.
Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements by Michael T Murray ND, page 356

Phosphatidylserine is a type of lipid important for normal brain function and the effective transmission of nerve impulses. Low levels of phosphatidylserine are associated with Parkinson's disease. Smart Medicine For Healthier Living by Janet Zand LAc OMD Allan N Spreen MD CNC
James B LaValle RPh ND, page 466

Phosphatidylserine has demonstrated some usefulness in treating cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease, age-associated memory impairment and some non-Alzheimer's dementias.
PDR For Nutritional Supplements by Sheldon Saul Hendle and David Rorvik, page 356

Low levels of phosphatidylserine, an important brain nutrient, are associated with impaired mental function and depression. The recommended dosage is 100 milligrams taken three times daily.
Smart Medicine For Healthier Living by Janet Zand LAc OMD Allan N Spreen MD CNC James B LaValle RPh ND, page 105

Phosphatidylserine loss appears to correlate with the degree of cognitive impairment. Rat experiments indicate that phosphatidylserine treatment prevents the age-related reduction in dendritic spine density in rat hippocampus. Protein kinase C facilitation of acetylcholine release has been reported in rats. phosphatidylserine was found to restore protein kinase C activity in aging rats. Stimulation of calcium uptake by brain synaptosomes and activation of protein kinase C are yet other speculative mechanisms of phosphatidylserine's putative cognition-enhancing action.
PDR For Nutritional Supplements by Sheldon Saul Hendle and David Rorvik, page 356

Low levels of phosphatidylserine in the brain are associated with impaired mental function and depression in the elderly.
Textbook of Natural Medicine Volumes 1-2 by Joseph E Pizzorno and Michael T Murray, page 883

Phosphatidylserine has recently been reported to be needed to maintain appropriate age-related cognitive function.
Know Your Fats by Mary G Enig, page 61

Human-based clinical studies

Alzheimer's disease and senile patients have also experienced benefits following treatment with phosphatidylserine. Doses of 400 mg per day led to significant, short-term neuropsychological improvements in such patients relative to controls. The administration of 300 mg per day for eight weeks led to significant clinical improvements in patients with mild primary degenerative dementia. In another study, Alzheimer's patients received 100 mg per day of bovine cortex phosphatidylserine for twelve weeks. Results showed the treatment improved several cognitive measures relative to controls. Animal trials have produced similar results. Phosphatidylserine has promise for cancer and heart disease as well.
Ultimate Anti-Aging Program by Gary Null PhD, page 183

Phosphatidylserine is one of the most abundant phospholipids in the brain. Its primary role is to help relay chemical messages from brain cell to brain cell. Studies have shown that phosphatidylserine supplements can have a significantly positive effect on brain function. In one recent study, 149 healthy men and women, 50 to 70 years of age, were all diagnosed with normal age-associated memory impairment, the kind of forgetfulness we all experience as we grow older. Participants were given 100 mg of phosphatidylserine (PS) daily for 12 weeks, or a placebo. Those taking the PS noted significant improvements in their ability to do normal tasks, such as recall telephone numbers and names and faces. Those who took the placebo showed virtually no change.
Earl Mindell's Supplement Bible by Earl Mindell RPh PhD, page 261

Parkinson's Disease -This article notes that clinical and experimental research indicates phosphatidylserine prepared from cow's brain can have positive effects on cerebral changes involved in the symptoms of Alzheimer's type senile dementia among patients with Parkinson's disease.
The Clinician's Handbook Of Natural Healing by Gary Null PhD, page 122

In a 1991 study of phosphatidylserine among people aged 50 to 75, doctors found positive results when they used 100-milligram doses of PS, three times daily. Researchers found a 30 percent improvement in cognitive function that included memory, learning, recalling names, faces, and numbers. They also found that some people with the worst memory impairment were more likely to respond positively to PS.
Natural Physicians Healing Therapies by Mark Stengler ND, page 363

Alzheimer's Disease study results showed that phosphatidylserine administered in doses of 400 mg per day led to significant, short-term neuropsychological improvements in patients with Alzheimer's disease relative to controls.
The Clinician's Handbook Of Natural Healing by Gary Null PhD, page 117

The primary use of phosphatidylserine is in the treatment of depression and/or impaired mental function in the elderly. Very good results have been obtained in numerous double-blind studies. Statistically significant improvements were noted in the phosphatidylserine-treated group in mental function, mood, and behavior. In a double-blind study of depressed elderly patients, phosphatidylserine improved depressive symptoms, memory, and behavior.
Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements by Michael T Murray ND, page 357

Phosphatidylserine (PS) belongs to a special category of fat-soluble substances called phospholipids, which are essential components of cell membranes. PS is found in high concentrations in the brain and may help preserve, or even improve, some aspects of mental functioning in the elderly when taken in the amount of 300 mg per day for 3 to 6 months, according to double-blind research. Placebo-controlled and double-blind studies have shown mild benefits from PS supplementation when used in the amount of 300 mg per day for 3 to 12 weeks in patients with early Alzheimer's disease. In one double-blind study, the improvement on standardized tests of mental functioning averaged approximately 15%. Continued improvement has been reported up to 3 months beyond the end of the supplementation period.
The Natural Pharmacy by Schuyler W Lininger, page 264

Oral administration of 300 mg per day of soybean transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine can improve and/or prevent senile dementia in humans.
The Clinician's Handbook Of Natural Healing by Gary Null PhD, page 120

Phosphatidylserine supplementation in animal studies and human clinical trials has significantly improved acetylcholine release, memory, and age-related brain changes.
Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements by Michael T Murray ND, page 356

Double-blind Randomized Controlled Study of phosphatidylserine in Senile Demented Patients. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of 300 mg per day of phosphatidylserine for 30 days on cognitive, affective and behavioral symptoms of elderly women with depressive disorders. Results showed that patients receiving phosphatidylserine experienced improvements with respect to memory, behavior, and depressive symptoms relative to controls.
The Clinician's Handbook Of Natural Healing by Gary Null PhD, page 119

An impressive volume of research shows that phosphatidylserine, another modified amino acid, benefits acetylcholine deficiencies. We often recommend phosphatidylserine in our clinic when a patient is diagnosed with a memory disorder, early dementia, or depression. Multiple sclerosis patients may respond to phosphatidylserine as well.
The Edge Effect By Eric R Braverman MD, page 112

Brain Function -- Results of this study showed that patients suffering from chronic cerebral decomponensation experienced improvements in mnesic and neuropsychic symtpomatology following phosphatidylserine administration for 60 days.
The Clinician's Handbook Of Natural Healing by Gary Null PhD, page 119

Types of PS supplementation

Phosphatidylserine is a semi-synthetic product manufactured from soy lecithin. Originally, phosphatidylserine was isolated from bovine (beef) brain.
Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements by Michael T Murray ND, page 357

In biochemical terms lecithin is synonymous with phosphatidylcholine, in most preparations it is a combination of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. Pure phosphatidylcholine is thought to improve memory by increasing the availability of choline for the production of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.
Excitotoxins by Russell L Blaylock MD, page 35

Posphatidylserine is a phospholipid that is a structural component of biological membranes of plants, animals and other life forms. phosphatidylserine was first isolated from brain lipids called cephalins. The major cephalins are phosphatidylserine and phophatidylethanolamine. Another major phospholipid found in egg yolks and soya is phosphatidylcholine, also known, chemically, as lecithin. phosphatidylserine is also isolated from soya and egg yolks.
PDR For Nutritional Supplements by Sheldon Saul Hendle and David Rorvik, page 355

Make sure to buy phosphatidylserine and not phosphorylated serine. The latter is not the same and will not have the same effect.
Natural Physician's Healing Therapies by Mark Stengler ND, page 362

There are reports that phosphatidylserine can activate cells of the immune system. Phosphatidylserine is thought to work by stimulating repair of cell membranes. Preliminary results of a multicenter trial in Italy on phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's disease patients have now been reported. It appears that after the first six months of the study, improvements in memory and overall decrease in dementia were observed, but only in the most severely demented patients. Phosphatidylserine does not appear to have any adverse side effects.
Vitamin And Mineral Encyclopedia by Sheldon Saul Hendler MD PhD, page 274

Dr. Lombard suggests that people who have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease should also take 300 milligrams of a nutritional supplement called phosphatidylserine (PS) daily with meals. Phosphatidylserine is an important component of cell membranes and helps cells in the brain to retain their fluidity -- an important property for proper function," he says. Several studies have shown PS to be helpful for age-related memory decline, Alzheimer's disease, or depression.
Nature's Medicines by Gale Maleskey, page 324

Though it is clearly not a cure, phosphatidylserine (100 mg 3 times per day) has been shown to improve mental function (such as ability to remember names and ability to recall the location of frequently misplaced objects) in individuals with Alzheimer's disease.
The Natural Pharmacy by Schuyler W Lininger, page 264

To help slow or reverse brain aging, the Life Extension Foundation offers a supplement called Cognitex, which contains compounds such as pregnenolone, phosphatidylserine, and several different forms of choline, the building block of acetylcholine, which regulates learning and memory.
Power Aging by Gary Null, page 192

The Cognitex formula contains nutrients such as pregnenolone, phosphatidylserine, and several different forms of choline, which may counter other mechanisms involved in pathologic brain cell aging.
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 1261

What is phosphatidylserine and what does it do in general?

Phosphatidylserine is a major building block for nerve cells.
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 64

Phosphatidylserine is a constituent of cell membranes and, as the major phospholipid in the brain, plays a role in the integrity and fluidity of cell membranes, especially in nerve cells. Phosphatidylserine supplementation improves the release of acetylcholine and dopamine (neurotransmitters) in the brain to improve cognition and memory, and it has a positive impact on behavior. Phosphatidylserine is also needed for proper metabolism of fatty acids and to maintain a healthy immune system.
Building Wellness with DMG by Roger V Kendall PhD, page 94

Phosphatidylserine is the major phospholipid in the brain, where it plays a major role in determining the integrity and fluidity of cell membranes.
Textbook of Natural Medicine Volumes 1-2 by Joseph E Pizzorno and Michael T Murray, page 883

Phosphatidylserine has potential to improve neural function, helping to maintain cell membrane integrity and protecting brain cells against functional deterioration.
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 1222

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an essential fatty acid that allows brain cells to better absorb nutrients. It has been shown to improve memory and learning in the most severe cases.
A Physician's Guide To Natural Health Products That Work By James Howenstine MD, page 305

Phosphatidylserine is a phospholipid that is vital to neuronal functioning and brain metabolism.
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 151

Phosphatidylserine (also called PS) is being hailed as the "ginkgo for the millennium." Studies have shown that this phospholipid extract from soy is effective in improving mental alertness, and especially the memory, in people with age-related mental decline. PS is an important phospholipid that is a building block for cell membranes. It is found in every human cell, but is a very specific brain nutrient, being most highly concentrated in brain cells.
Natural Physician's Healing Therapies by Mark Stengler ND, page 362

Phosphatidylserine (PS) improves neurotransmitter functioning and enhances the metabolism of cellular energy throughout the body.
Disease Prevention And Treatment by Life Extension Foundation, page 499

Phosphatidylserine (PS), plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of brain cell membranes. The breakdown of these membranes prevents glucose and other nutrients from entering the cell. By protecting the integrity of cell membranes, PS facilitates the efficient transport of energy-producing nutrients into cells, enhancing brain cell energy metabolism.
Power Aging by Gary Null, page 173

Although phosphatidylserine is found in every cell type in the body, it plays an especially vital role in nerve tissue. It is critical in membrane-to-membrane fusion -- a key process in neurotransmitter release -- as well as activating cell surface receptors and supporting the transmission of chemical signals.
Textbook of Natural Medicine Volumes 1-2 by Joseph E Pizzorno and Michael T Murray, page 883

It is known that phosphatidylserine is a natural glutamate blocker. It has also been shown to improve cell membrane stability and fluidity. As we age our cell membranes become stiffer, interfering with their normal operation in a multitude of functions such as electrolyte exchange gradients, receptor function, and impulse generation. Phosphatidylserine appears to restore a more youthful composition to these vital membranes. This intriguing compound has also shown promise in Alzheimer's patients. Most improved on several measures of cognitive functions and the result appeared to be most dramatic in those having earlier stages of the disease.
Excitotoxins by Russell L Blaylock MD, page 36

Phospholipids help form the neurons' outer covering, or membrane, and aid communication between brain cells.
Alternative Cures by Bill Gottlieb, page 437

Phosphatidylserine enhances all aspects of cell metabolism; acts on the neuron membrane as aneuroendocrine factor to release intracellular amine stores; improved muscarine cholinergic receptors in brains of aged mice at 10-40 mg. per kg. of body weight; improved glucose metabolism 15-20% in Brain areas of Alzheimer's patients at 500 mg. daily for 3 weeks, and 300 mg. daily improved attention and sociability.
Anti-Aging Manual by Joseph B Marion, page 9

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is one particularly important phospholipid that is involved in relaying chemical messages throughout the brain, helping brain cells to store and retrieve information.
Earl Mindell's Supplement Bible by Earl Mindell RPh PhD, page 120

Phosphatidylserine (PS), a natural substance derived from the amino acid serine, affects neurotransmitter levels in the brain that affect mood.
The Natural Pharmacy by Schuyler W Lininger, page 264

Phosphatidylserine has been shown consistently to improve memory and attention, without causing serious side effects. Phosphatidylserine seems to enhance communication between the chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) in the brain. It also appears to inhibit synthesis of cortisol, a stress hormone that may interfere with thinking and memory.
Bottom Line Yearbook 2004 by Bottom Line Personal, page 18

N-acetyl-cysteine has antioxidant properties that can promote healthy functioning of the brain, while phosphatidylserine enhances the ability of enzymes in membranes of nerve cells to relay messages in and out of the cells. This product can improve memory and learning capacity in older adults, and can ameliorate symptoms of depression. Phosphatidylserine is especially effective when paired with omega-3 fatty acid supplements.
Complete Encyclopedia Of Natural Healing by Gary Null PhD, page 30

Phosphatidylserine has been shown to help relieve depression.
Natural Physician's Healing Therapies by Mark Stengler ND, page 400

Phosphatidylserine, a type of lipid, is an important nutrient for the brain. It can help restore and preserve brain function, including memory. Smart Medicine For Healthier Living by Janet Zand LAc OMD Allan N Spreen MD CNC
James B LaValle RPh ND, page 91

Supplemental forms of a phospholipid called phosphatidylserine (PS), which is normally found in the brain, have been widely used for treating cognitive disorders.
The Omega Solution by Jonathan Goodman ND, page 121

Phosphatidylserine, a type of lipid, can be helpful if memory problems accompany fibromyalgia. It often yields rapid and impressive improvement in memory and mental alertness.
Smart Medicine For Healthier Living by Janet Zand LAc OMD Allan N Spreen MD CNC James B LaValle RPh ND, page 286

Schizophrenia and epilepsy patients have benefited from phosphatidylserine. Stress is another condition that phostphatidylserine can help. The administration of 800 mg per day of phosphatidylserine for ten days on neuroendocrine responses to physical stress in healthy males found it counteracted activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis induced by stress. Pretreatment of healthy males with doses of 50 and 75 mg per day of brain cortex-derived phosphatidlyserine produced a significant blunting of the ACTH and cortisol responses to physical stress.
Ultimate Anti-Aging Program by Gary Null PhD, page 184

Phosphatidylserine is a nutritional supplement, not a drug; as such, it is more widely known in alternative than in conventional medicinal circles. In short, it is a fatty substance that may halt memory declines and even bring memory improvements (at least among those who have already suffered some decline).
Uncommon Cures for Everyday Ailments by the editors of Bottom Line Health, page 184

Phosphatidylserine: A Brain-Cell Stimulator "Certain nutritional supplements can protect and stimulate brain cells, making the most of what hasn't been killed or damaged by the stroke," says Phillip Minton, M.D., a homeopathic physician in Reno. The nutrient phosphatidylserine, which is a component of cellular membranes, is among them.
Alternative Cures by Bill Gottlieb, page 566

Phosphatidylserine (PS) - an essential fatty acid your body produces naturally in limited amounts—keeps your brain active and alert, starting on the cellular level. First, it "influences fluidity" of the brain-cell membrane. By facilitating the delivery of nutrients to the brain cells, as well as the cells' ability to receive the nutrients, PS effectively feeds your brain.
Underground Cures by Health Sciences Institute, page 101

Animal-based research studies

Results of this study showed that the administration of phosphatidylserine balanced age-altered enzymatic functions in rats.
The Clinician's Handbook Of Natural Healing by Gary Null PhD, page 804

Several double-blind studies suggest that phosphatidylserine can help maintain cognitive function in older individuals and may be able to improve memory and learning skill in some. There is evidence that phosphatidylserine can help maintain the hippocampal dendritic spine population of aging rats. It has been suggested that these spines serve as a substrate for information storage. There are several studies demonstrating improved cognitive function in several animal models.
PDR For Nutritional Supplements by Sheldon Saul Hendle and David Rorvik, page 356

Results of study showed that phosphatidylserine administered to aging rats can restore acetylcholine by maintaining a sufficient level in the cortical slices.
The Clinician's Handbook Of Natural Healing by Gary Null PhD, page 804

A 1987 report by an Italian scientist showed that when phosphatidylserine was given orally to rats with known age-dependent declines in cerebral function it improved memory deficits, prevented the decline in learning capacity observed in aged rats, restored age-dependent electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities and prevented some degenerative nerve cell changes in certain parts of the brain.
Vitamin And Mineral Encyclopedia by Sheldon Saul Hendler MD PhD, page 272

"Activity of phosphatidylserine on Memory Retrieval and on Exploration in Mice," study showed that the postnatal administration of an aqueous suspension of phosphatidylserine led to improvements of memory processes in mice.
The Clinicians Handbook Of Natural Healing by Gary Null PhD, page 807

Postnatal administration of an aqueous suspension of phosphatidylserine led to improvements of memory processes in mice.
The Clinician's Handbook Of Natural Healing by Gary Null PhD, page 120

Animal studies indicate that phosphatidylserine restores acetylcholine release in aging rats by maintaining an adequate supply of the molecule and is able to increase the availability of endogenous choline for de novo acetylcholine synthesis. The hippocampus of the brain is believed to be important for cognitive processes and is affected in those with Alzheimer's disease. The dendritic spines of pyramidal cells, the post-synaptic target of the excitatory input to the hippocampus, have been proposed as a substrate for information storage.
PDR For Nutritional Supplements by Sheldon Saul Hendle and David Rorvik, page 355

Results of study showed that oral administration of 50 mg/kg per day of phosphatidylserine for 12 weeks improved spatial memory and passive avoidance retention of aged impaired rats.
The Clinician's Handbook Of Natural Healing by Gary Null PhD, page 120

In rats, it appears that there is extensive digestion of phosphatidylserine in the small intestine, producing, among other things, lysophospha-tidylserine, a substance that contains only one fatty acid, and phosphatidylethanolamine. Following absorption, lysophosphatidylserine is metabolized in intestinal mucosa cells, and its metabolites, which include some phosphatidylserine, enter the lymphatics draining the small intestine. It appears that only a small fraction of ingested phosphatidylserine reaches the systemic circulation as part of the phospholipid pool. The amount that reaches the brain, after either intraperitoneal injection or oral administration, is very small. Most of the behavioral and neurochemical effects noted in animal studies have been observed only after repeated intraperitoneal and oral phosphatidylserine dosing.
PDR For Nutritional Supplements by Sheldon Saul Hendle and David Rorvik, page 356

Administration During Postnatal Development Improves Memory in Adult Mice study showed that oral administration of 50 mg/kg per day of phosphatidylserine for 12 weeks improved spatial memory and passive avoidance retention of aged impaired rats.
The Clinician's Handbook Of Natural Healing by Gary Null PhD, page 807

Phosphatidylserine supplementation in animal studies has been shown to significantly improve acetylcholine release, memory, and age-related brain changes. Presumably these effects are responsible for the positive effects noted in human clinical trials.
Textbook of Natural Medicine Volumes 1-2 by Joseph E Pizzorno and Michael T Murray, page 885

Age-related Alterations of NMDA-receptor Properties in the Mouse Forebrain: Partial Restoration by Chronic phosphatidylserine Treatment," Brain Research study indicated that the oral administration of 300 mg per day of soybean transphosphati-dylated phosphatidylserine can improve and/or prevent senile dementia in humans.
The Clinician's Handbook Of Natural Healing by Gary Null PhD, page 807

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