Why should any of this matter to you? Bribery was a definitive part of world history and it is equally prevalent in modern society. When it comes to current politics, bribery is still the figurative "elephant in the room." From private citizens to the media to the politicians and government officials themselves, we all know that bribery exists and is more common than we'd like to think. However, ironically, bribery is so common that we've become tolerant of it. Now, it has even tainted the way the prescription drugs are approved and the way doctors prescribe medications, making bribery a threat to your personal safety.
Not only are we surprisingly tolerant of bribery, many of us expect it to happen, or even approve of it. The Bribery, Graft and Conflicts of Interest Act of 1962 made it punishable to offer "anything of value" to a public official with the intention of influencing him or her. However, our government has a built-in way of circumventing its own law: Political Action Committees. Within the contemporary U.S. government, money raised by Political Action Committees (PACs) is such an acceptable form of bribery that the press ignores it, according to Carl Jensen's book, 20 Years of Censored News.
However, even though popular opinion deems this form of bribery acceptable, it is still detrimental to our society's well being. As Robert Cohen writes in Milk: The Deadly Poison, "The influence exerted by PAC groups and the hundreds of millions of dollars in legal bribes that they pay our representatives have taken America away from the goals and philosophy which once made it a great nation." In other words, even though bribery is typically punished as a felony, when our government participates in it, it's perfectly legal.
By far, one of the most disconcerting bribery-influenced systems surrounds the FDA and the USDA, two government agencies that are supposed to protect the American public. The FDA has been repeatedly linked to bribery, and this corruption is public knowledge, thanks to the 1989 generic drug scandals. Ironically, it was a pharmaceutical company, Mylan, that exposed the pharmaceutical industry's influence on the drug approval process.
After suspecting corruption in the fast approval of some pharmaceuticals and not others, Mylan hired private detectives who "caught FDA agents red-handed taking bribes in exchange for expediting drug approval," explains Kenny Ausubel in When Healing Becomes a Crime. This resulted in the conviction of four FDA employees and, most significantly, loss of public trust.
Later, during the Clinton administration, agriculture secretary Michael Espy resigned from office, after investigations revealed that he had received "inappropriate gifts" from Tyson Chicken, Quaker Oats and Sun Diamond in the form of sports tickets (including Chicago Bulls playoff tickets), special lodging, use of private industry jets, lavish parties and a leased Jeep Cherokee that was charged to the U.S. government.
Espy was unfortunate enough to have been discovered, but he is by no means unique. Similarly, Monsanto Company's use of bribery received worldwide attention when Canadian Ministers revealed that the genetically modified food company had offered them $2 million in bribes in exchange for the approval of bovine growth hormones in Canada. This scandal has disastrous implications not only for Monsanto, but also for our regulatory agency, the FDA, as Cohen asks, "I wonder, what happens behind closed doors when Monsanto meets the FDA? Could events similar to the well-publicized Canadian bribe scandal which aired on the Fifth Estate television broadcast be standard operating procedure in our country?"
Unfortunately, health care corruption in this country doesn't end with the FDA; it has infiltrated the whole system. Drug companies regularly use trips, dinners, cash and free drugs to "persuade" doctors to prescribe new and expensive pharmaceuticals, according to many sources. These bribery expenses pay for themselves many times over, as the most popular drug may not be necessarily the most effective or the one with the least number of side effects, but rather the one that has been promoted and advertised the most.
Now, of course, the pharmaceutical companies disguise their bribes under the altruistic term "gifts," but Natural Alternatives author Michael T. Murray finds the term suspect, asking poignantly, "If the drug company didn't expect the gift to influence the doctor's decision, why would it give the gift?" He goes on to clarify, "A gift implies that there are no strings attached." As much as they would not like to admit it to others, or especially to themselves, doctors know that these "gifts" are linked to an ulterior motive, according to Dr. Jerome P. Kassirer in his book, On the Take. In other words, you may not always be able to trust your doctor to make an objective decision about your care.
What does this mean for you as the consumer? Plenty. Though bribery is harmful anywhere, the use of bribery in the health care system is especially dangerous, making it more important than ever for you to take an active, informed role in your health care. Yes, bribery is prevalent in modern society, but it doesn't have to control your life.
The experts speak on bribery:
The influence exerted by PAC groups and the hundreds of millions of dollars in legal bribes that they pay our representatives have taken America away from the goals and philosophy which made it a once great nation.
Milk The Deadly Poison by Robert Cohen, page 132
The Bribery, Graft and Conflicts of Interest Act of 1962, set penalties for anyone who offered "anything of value" with the intention of influencing a public official. Although intention was the crucial issue, federal lawyers have interpreted this law to mean that officials of government agencies should refuse any gifts—no matter how seemingly inconsequential -- from representatives of companies with matters under USDA regulatory review.
Safe Food by Marion Nestle, page 80
The act made it a federal crime for industry employees to do anything that could be construed as an attempt to unduly influence inspectors. Later, the wonderfully named Bribery, Graft and Conflicts of Interest Act of 1962 (Public Law 87-849) established penalties for any citizen who offered or promised "anything of value" with the intent to influence a public official.
Food Politics by Marion Nestle, page 139
Stephen Kinzer noted that senior U.S. officials confirmed accounts of "regular contacts" with the Nicaraguan parties. Kinzer's article is headlined "Nicaraguan Parties Cite Sandinista and U.S. Pressure," the headline and article itself equating the government's aid to, and agreements with, its own political parties with U.S. intervention to get the Nicaraguan parties to boycott the election! CBS, Newsweek, and Time ignored the U.S. bribe program entirely. Time gave great emphasis to the number of candidates and the withdrawal of several, but it never once mentioned that this was helped along by U.S. connivance, bribes, and pressure.
Manufacturing Consent by Edward S Herman and Noam Chomsky, page 128
We elect them to Congress but they take bribes, PAC money, from the Dairy Industry to "look the other way" and know nothing but the way to the bank.
Milk The Deadly Poison by Robert Cohen, page 12
Accepting a bribe also constitutes a crime. Bribery is typically punishable as a felony. In any charge of bribery, some element of "corrupt purpose" must be implied or proved. Thus, in the absence of a complete statutory prohibition on the granting of favors to a public official, a gift is not a bribe unless it is given with some intent to influence the recipient's official behavior.
Britannica Encyclopedia Volume One, page 268
Thus far no member of the committee has denied the report. The committee's own standards of evidence would seem to require that each of its members take the oath and swear that he isn't receiving bribes -- or to tell how much and from whom.
The Nation by Katrina Vanden Heuvel, page 220
Much of the litigation in our courts centers on determining what words apply to an action, situation, or object. Were the payments "sales incentives" or bribes and kickbacks?
The New Doublespeak by William Lust, page 11
Private detectives hired by Mylan caught FDA agents red-handed taking bribes in exchange for expediting drug approval.
When Healing Becomes A Crime by Kenny Ausubel, page 278
Ethical behavior for a Congressman should not differ from unethical behavior for a Secretary. The same act of taking gifts or bribes for influence should applied to all government officials. In a statement accepting Espy's resignation, President Clinton commented that Espy's timely resignation was appropriate because of his improper acceptance of gifts from Tyson Chicken, Quaker Oats and Sun Diamond. In addition to accepting sports tickets and requesting Chicago Bulls playoff tickets, Espy received special lodging, the use of private industry jets, lavish parties and the lease of a Jeep Cherokee which was charged to the U.S. government.
Milk The Deadly Poison by Robert Cohen, page 129
The EOP Group's methods of "regulatory consulting" featured prominently during the bribery and influence-peddling trial of former Clinton administration agriculture secretary Mike Espy, where it was disclosed that the EOP had hired Espy's girlfriend at a salary of $35,000 per year, even though her performance was, in the company's own estimation, "sporadic at best."
Trust Us We Are Experts by Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber, page 348
The favorable Supreme Court decision that exonerated Mr. Espy meant that the net result of the entire tawdry affair was to make it legal for food companies to give presents to agency officials as long as the gifts were not used explicitly as bribes.
Food Politics by Marion Nestle, page 142
Canadian Ministers reported multimillion-dollar bribes to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Monsanto had offered $2 million dollars if rBST were approved in Canada.
Milk The Deadly Poison by Robert Cohen, page 172
Also on camera, Canadian government officials described what they called an attempt at bribery by Monsanto, which offered $1 to $2 million to gain rBGH approval in Canada.
The Politics Of Cancer-Prevention Revisited by Samuel S. Epstein MD, page 617
During Canada's scientific review of Monsanto's application for approval of rBGH, Canadian health officials said Monsanto tried to bribe them, and government scientists testified that they were being pressured by higher-ups to approve rBGH against their better scientific judgment.
Food Revolution by John Robbins, page 345
FDA had actually received complaints concerning nearly 9,500 BST-treated cows contracting mastitis. This Canadian TV program also reported that Canadian government officials, while debating legalization of BST, received multimillion-dollar bribes from Monsanto officials. If Monsanto bribed officials in Canada, is it possible that they did the same in the United States?
Milk The Deadly Poison by Robert Cohen, page 136
The reporters went on to interview two Canadian regulators who charged Monsanto with offering them a $1 to $2 million bribe for approving the drug without further testing.
When Healing Becomes A Crime by Kenny Ausubel, page 309
When Monsanto faced accusations in the press for attempting to bribe members of Canada's Bureau of Veterinary Drugs to approve rBGH, the resulting firestorm helped prevent the product from gaining governmental approval there.
Mad Cowboy By Howard F Lyman, page 101
The government claims to enforce laws that prohibit the production of many of these substances. However, it is well known that small chemical plants are not effectively monitored and that the industry giants falsify reports and bribe federal agencies.
Health In The 21st Century by Fransisco Contreras MD, page 64
Finally, it should be noted that at the very moment of this approval, the FDA itself was under congressional investigation for allegations of bribery and favoritism in the approval of drugs.
The Cancer Industry by Ralph W Moss, page 337
It is impossible for any government to do tests on each of the millions of synthetic organic chemicals produced by industry. If a substance is tested and proven harmful, its production may be banned. On the rare occasions that the law is applied, it only serves as a "Band-Aid" cure because the industry giants merely seek out some third world country that, because of employment opportunities and the occasional bribe, will allow them to manufacture such poisonous products.
Health In The 21st Century by Fransisco Contreras MD, page 77
They bribed members of the House of Representatives, congressmen who sat on the Dairy Committee, a subcommittee of the House Agriculture Committee, by paying them PAC money.
Milk The Deadly Poison by Robert Cohen, page 46
Doctors have been bribed and brainwashed by pharmaceutical companies to prescribe new, expensive medications for every ailment.
Ultraprevention by Mark Hyman MD and Mark Liponis MD, page 348
Drug companies regularly bribe doctors with free drugs, dinners, trips and even cash.
PROZAC Panacea or Pandora by Ann Blake Tracy PhD, page 235
What determines popularity? The effectiveness of the drug company's marketing and advertising efforts. In essence, doctors are often bribed or lied to so that they will prescribe certain medications. The bribing aspect is well known.
Natural Alternatives To Drugs by Michael T Murray ND, page 25
Does Money Matter? As these examples illustrate, many of the factors that bias scientific results are considerably more subtle than outright bribery or fraud. "There is distortion that causes publication bias in little ways, and scientists just don't understand that they have been influenced."
Trust Us We Are Experts by Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber, page 205
Physicians know that pharmaceutical companies don't provide these services simply out of altruistic motives, yet they are eager to believe that they can preserve their integrity in the face of such bribes.
On The Take by Jerome P Kassirer M.D., page 73
The chairman of the department of psychiatry at the Medical College of Georgia, psychopharmacologist Richard Borison, and another professor in his department, Bruce Diamond, were indicted by the Georgia Attorney General on 172 counts of bribery, racketeering, forgeries, and endangering patients in connection with clinical testing of psychiatric medications for some twenty pharmaceutical companies over a decade. During this time, the two professors published more than twenty articles in scholarly journals and built national reputations based on their "research" on depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. The April 1997 Psychiatric Times reported that one "bribery count in the indictment alleges that Borison and Diamond paid an undisclosed sum to an MCG [Medical College of Georgia] employee in exchange for her not filing a complaint regarding a patient suicide that occurred during a clinical study.
Prozac Backlash by Joseph Glenmullen MD, page 210
Richard Borison, head of the Medical College of Georgia, and one of his professors, Bruce Diamond, were indicted on 172 counts of forgery, racketeering, bribery, and endangering patients via their fraudulent clinical testing of various psychiatric medications over a ten year period.
PROZAC Panacea or Pandora by Ann Blake Tracy PhD, page 280
Doctors Borison and Diamond pleaded guilty to the theft, bribery, and racketeering charges brought against them by the Georgia Attorney General. They were each fined $125,000 and were sentenced to prison.
Prozac Backlash by Joseph Glenmullen MD, page 211
Companies may hire a researcher as a paid consultant to obtain his goodwill, rather than to use his expertise. A separate report in the same issue of the NEJM makes the case that there is now considerable evidence that researchers with financial ties are more likely to report favorable results than those without such ties. Although this does not mean that they are necessarily being "bought" or bribed, the financial ties, along with a close relationship with a company, can have at least subtle influences on an expert's judgment.
Ephedra Fact And Fiction by Mike Fillon, page 190
The ultimate drug company "bribery" is sending an M.D. on an exotic vacation and including CME courses along with it. The physician spends a few hours a day listening to lectures on how to prescribe the company's drugs and the rest of his time on the beach or golf course. Pressure to conform also comes from the physician's state medical board which has the power to take away his license. Physicians are subject to having their medical license taken away if they fail to conform to the "standard of care" dictated by the board. Thus, a physician who fails to prescribe the "right" class of drugs for a common problem such as high blood pressure can be threatened with the loss of his license.
Prescription Alternatives by Earl Mindell RPh PhD and Virginia Hopkins MA, page 13
Agnew, Spiro Theodore (1918-1996) U.S. politician, the only vice president forced to resign. His speeches denouncing Vietnam War protesters and television news coverage brought him much attention. Investigated for extortion, bribery, and income-tax violations during his governorship, he resigned in 1973 and pleaded no contest to a single income-tax charge.
Britannica Encyclopedia Volume One, page 28
Du Bois saw this new capitalism as part of a process of exploitation and bribery taking place in all the "civilized" countries of the world: Home labor in cultured lands, appeased and misled by a ballot whose power the dictatorship of vast capital strictly curtailed, was bribed by high wage and political office to unite in an exploitation of white, yellow, brown and black labor, in lesser lands.
A Peoples History of the United States 1492-Present by Howard Zinn, page 207
On February 5, 1988, two federal grand juries in Florida indicted General Manuel Noriega (see mug shot, above) on charges of, among other things, accepting millions of dollars in bribes, during a period beginning in 1981, to turn his nation into a "safe haven" for violent Colombian drug traffickers smuggling huge amounts of cocaine into the United States.
The Experts Speak by Christopher Cerf and Victor Navasky, page 297
The Reagan administration not only dangled Cruz before the media, it tried hard to induce or bribe other candidates in the Nicaraguan election to withdraw in order to fulfill the prophecy of a meaningless election.
Manufacturing Consent by Edward S Herman and Noam Chomsky, page 127
Over a decade later, Sencer would speak with a happy gleam in his eyes and a lightened tone of voice about Congressman John M. Murphy's 1981 indictment and later conviction for conspiracy and accepting bribes in the so-called Abscam scandal.
The Coming Plague by Laurie Garrett, page 179
Bribery scandal that resulted in the conviction of several congressmen and a U.S. senator in 1980-81. Representative John W. Jenrette Jr. (Ohio) and Senator Harrison Williams (New Jersey), among other officials, were lured into a "sting" operation conducted by FBI agents posing as wealthy Arabs wishing to pay cash bribes in return for legislative favors.
The Facts On File Encyclopedia Of The 20th Century by John Drexel, page 9
Established in 1949, the GSA is responsible for purchasing and distributing supplies to government agencies and maintaining supplies of critical materials. It also oversees the construction of government buildings and maintains the computer and communications systems used by the federal government. It was rocked by scandal in 1978 when an investigation uncovered bribery, theft, and wasteful management; new rules and procedures were later put into place to prevent such abuses.
Britannica Encyclopedia Volume One, page 731
Claiborne was the first sitting federal judge ever to be sent to prison. An active Democrat from Nevada, appointed to the bench by President Carter, he was under financial pressure due to a recent divorce and failed to report on his tax return over $100,000 in legal fees received from his old law firm. Claiborne was initially tried for both tax evasion and taking bribes, but the trial resulted in a hung jury.
The Facts On File Encyclopedia Of The 20th Century by John Drexel, page 204
Throughout Nixon's first term and during the 1972 reelection campaign, Agnew continued his defense of the administration's Vietnam war policy and his condemnation of administration opponents. Nixon and Agnew were reelected in 1972. Agnew was not implicated in the developing Watergate Scandal, but he soon faced his own legal troubles. In mid-1973 he was charged with having committed numerous criminal acts, including extortion and bribery, while governor of Maryland and earlier.
The Facts On File Encyclopedia Of The 20th Century by John Drexel, page 14
Northrop was just another culprit unearthed by a massive investigation into possible fraud and bribery in securing defense contracts.
20 Years Of Censored News by Carl Jensen, page 267
When Johnson became vice president in 1961, additional accusations were raised that Baker received illegal payments and also bribed public officials.
The Facts On File Encyclopedia Of The 20th Century by John Drexel, page 67
The most notable, called the Teapot Dome scandal, involved the lease of federally owned oil reserve lands to private interests, apparently in return for bribes. Several high officials, including the secretary of the interior, were ultimately convicted for their part in the affair.
The Dictionary Of Cultural Literacy By E.D, page 268
Cohn, a friend of many in New York's society, became a minor celebrity. He also had a running battle with the Internal Revenue Service and was audited annually. He was tried and acquitted three times on bribery, extortion, blackmail and obstruction of justice charges.
The Facts On File Encyclopedia Of The 20th Century by John Drexel, page 210
House and Senate Ethics Committee investigations revealed that a number of congress- men had accepted gifts and contributions from Tongsun Park, a South Korean rice trader and influence peddler. The funds allegedly were paid in return for votes in favor of U.S. aid and the continuing presence of U.S. troops in South Korea. The investigations led to the indictment of Congressmen Hanna (California) and Passman (Louisiana), although only Hanna was convicted of taking bribes.
The Facts On File Encyclopedia Of The 20th Century by John Drexel, page 524
IBP planned to ship hundreds of millions of pounds of beef to New York City every year. Currier J. Holman agreed to pay the mob its five-cent commission, and the leaders of New York's butcher union promptly withdrew their objections to IBP's boxed beef. Shipments of IBP meat were soon being unloaded in Manhattan. After a lengthy investigation of mob involvement in the New York City meat business, Currier J. Holman and IBP were tried and convicted in 1974 for bribing union leaders and meat wholesalers. Judge Burton Roberts fined IBP $7,000, but did not punish Holman with any prison term or fine, noting that bribes were sometimes part of the cost of doing business in New York City.
Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser, page 156
In 1973 Otto Kerner, a U.S. Federal Circuit Court judge and former governor of Illinois (1961-69), was convicted on 17 counts of conspiracy, fraud, perjury, bribery and income tax evasion committed when he was governor.
The Facts On File Encyclopedia Of The 20th Century by John Drexel, page 512
If the propagators of these grotesque fancies only knew the encouragement they were giving to the contempt for law which makes both the rich briber and the semi-barbarous lyncher the curse of American politics at present, we feel sure they would pause in their efforts to save the community the loss of the vagabonds and ruffians who are now awaiting execution at Chicago.
The Nation by Katrina Vanden Heuvel, page 220
Albert Bacon (1861-1944) U.S. secretary of the interior (1921-23). Born in Frankfort, Ky., he practiced law in New Mexico Territory before being elected to the U.S. Senate, where he served 1913-21. An investigation after he left the Interior Department revealed that he had accepted a bribe while in office in return for government oil-reserve leases in the Teapot Dome scandal. Convicted of bribery in 1929, he was imprisoned for nine months.
Britannica Encyclopedia Volume One, page 642
Nationwide, crime rates jumped 24 percent during the first year of Prohibition. Jails filled to 170 percent of capacity. Bribery and extortion of government officials swiftly became so commonplace as to barely raise eyebrows among newsreaders.
Betrayal Of Trust By Laurie Garrett, page 304
The territory, held by Russia since 1741, had become an economic liability, and in 1866 it was offered for sale. Pres. Andrew Johnson's secretary of state, William Seward, negotiated its purchase for $7.2 million, or about two cents an acre. Critics labeled the purchase "Seward's Folly." Congressional opposition delayed the appropriation until 1868, when extensive lobbying and bribes by the Russians secured the required votes.
Britannica Encyclopedia Volume One, page 1617
A cowboy reign over the western half of the United States that began in the nineteenth century with violence and terror, marauding livestock and murder, illegal land grabs and intimidation of public officials, bribery, theft, and giveaways of federal land, continues today in a more decorous way with political action committees and lobbyists for powerful ranching interests.
Mad Cowboy By Howard F Lyman, page 135
While Grant was president, many businesses prospered, but often through bribery of government officials. His presidency has one of the worst records of corruption in American history.
The Dictionary Of Cultural Literacy By E.D, page 268
Lawyers for Michael Milken, once called the king of "junk bonds" (which is an interesting case of labeling), argued during his trial that what prosecutors called "bribes" and "kickbacks" were really "sales credits," and that helping clients to evade taxes was just "account accommodation."
The New Doublespeak by William Lust, page 83
Bribery in foreign governments
In his affidavit, Chamorro said he had been paymaster for the Nicaraguan Democratic Force (FDN) and had received money from the CIA to bribe Honduran journalists and broadcasters to write and speak favorably about the FDN and to attack the government of Nicaragua and call for its overthrow.
20 Years Of Censored News by Carl Jensen, page 190
It was Hudal who gave the necessary introductions to the International Red Cross and other "officials who, for a bribe, could smooth the fugitive's path.
AIDS And Ebola by Leonard Horowitz, page 341
The agency, which might better have been termed the Ministry of bribery and Disinformation, welcomed money in exchange for accreditations for foreigners and rarely provided anyone -- foreigner or citizen -- with accurate news about anything, especially public health.
Betrayal Of Trust By Laurie Garrett, page 87
Bacon, Francis later Viscount St. Albans (1561-1626) British statesman and philosopher, father of modern scientific method. Nephew of William Cecil, he studied at Cambridge and Gray's Inn. A supporter of the Earl of Essex, he turned against him when Essex was tried for treason. Under James I he rose steadily, becoming successively solicitor general (1607), attorney general (1613), and lord chancellor (1618). Convicted of accepting bribes from those being tried in his court, he was briefly imprisoned and permanently lost his public offices; he died deep in debt.
Britannica Encyclopedia Volume One, page 144
The most important Catli evidence bearing was his description of the attempt by the West German police to bribe Agca's supposed co-conspirator Oral Celik to come to West Germany and confirm Agca's claims.
Manufacturing Consent by Edward S Herman and Noam Chomsky, page 317
I recently received a letter from Gajdusek from his jail cell in Frederick, Maryland. I wonder how this very brilliant man was silenced at a time when the world so desperately needs his knowledge What pressures were exerted on our society and FBI to illegally tap Gajdusek's telephones and to bribe one of his close associates so that Gajdusek be betrayed at a moment in history when the world is faced with a disease with such horrible implications?
Milk The Deadly Poison by Robert Cohen, page 14
Charles-Maurice de (1754-1838) French statesman. Ordained a priest, he became bishop of Autun in 1788. He was forced to resign briefly for involvement in bribery scandals, including the XYZ Affair.
Britannica Encyclopedia Volume Two, page 16
Turkey and Bulgaria soon joined the central powers, while on the other side the Triple Alliance gradually built up into a very large coalition. Italy was bribed in; Greece, Rumania and (much more nominally) Portugal were also involved.
The Age of Extremes by Eric Hobsbawm, page 25
Randolph, Edmund Jennings (1753-1813) U.S. politician. He served as U.S. attorney general (1789-94) and secretary of state (1794-95), resigning after he was falsely accused of accepting a bribe from the French to influence the U.S. government against Britain.
Britannica Encyclopedia Volume Two, page 1551
The Bolsheviks simply took advantage of the confusion and indecisiveness that existed among the various groups that comprised the new government and caught them by surprise with a lightening strike of force. With a combination of bribes and propaganda, they recruited several regiments of soldiers and sailors and, in the early morning darkness of October 25, methodically took military possession of all government buildings and communication centers.
The Creature From Jekyll Island by G Edward Griffin, page 287
After the failure of the great dreams of 1968, some student radicals did indeed attempt to make revolution on their own by small-group terrorism, but, though such movements received a great deal of publicity (thus achieving at least one of their major objectives), they rarely had any serious political impact. Where they threatened to have, they were fairly rapidly suppressed once the authorities decided to act: in the 1970s with unexampled brutality and systematic torture in "dirty wars" in South America, with bribery and backstairs negotiations in Italy.
The Age of Extremes by Eric Hobsbawm, page 300
Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka is implicated in the Lockheed scandal and is arrested for accepting a 500 million-yen bribe.
The Facts On File Encyclopedia Of The 20th Century by John Drexel, page 484
In 1879 Lesseps organized another company to build a Panama canal, but gave up the project because of political and economic difficulties. He was prosecuted but cleared of misappropriating funds, though French government members were accused of bribe taking.
Britannica Encyclopedia Volume Two, page 1075
Politically, Tanaka fared worse. He had to resign in 1974; and in 1976 he was charged with, and later found guilty of, accepting bribes from the Lockheed Corporation.
The Facts On File Encyclopedia Of The 20th Century by John Drexel, page 486
Scandal involving bribes and kickbacks paid by lock-heed Corporation to obtain foreign contracts. In 1975 it was revealed that Lockheed, an aircraft manufacturer, regularly made payments to influence peddlers, foreign politicians and foreign military leaders as part of its sales strategy in marketing its planes overseas. A Senate investigation revealed that the payments were made with the knowledge of the corporation's senior managers. Revelation of the payments had far-reaching consequences. In Japan, Lockheed had made over $12 million in payments, including one to an aide close to Prime Minister tanaka. In West Germany, Lockheed paid a kickback to the Christian Socialist Party, while in Italy the corporation made payments to members of the military. When it was revealed that Prince Bernhard, husband of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, had secretly received $1 million, he resigned all his public offices in disgrace.
The Facts On File Encyclopedia Of The 20th Century by John Drexel, page 565
Corruption in Indonesia ran so deep, he explained to me, that officials would "actually give you a receipt for your bribes. Really. I get my immigration papers renewed each year. I pay the bribe and get a receipt.
The Lexus and The Olive Tree by Thomas L Friedman, page 127
Recruit Scandal [Japan]. Bribery scandal (1988-89). Recruit Co. (a multi-company conglomerate) made cash available to and sold unlisted, expensive stock in Recruit Cosmos (real estate affiliate) to high-ranking government officials. The stock later traded publicly at much higher rates, creating large profits for officials involved.
The Facts On File Encyclopedia Of The 20th Century by John Drexel, page 758