When eaten, sterols and stanols gum up the bodyís system for absorbing cholesterol from food. Since the liver needs cholesterol for digestion, it grabs LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream while leaving HDL cholesterol alone. Eating 2 grams per day can lower levels of LDL cholesterol by about 10%, which could translate into a 20% lower risk of having a heart attack or stroke.
If a food you eat every day is now being made with extra sterols or stanols, switching to the fortified version makes sense, says the Harvard Heart Letter. If not, adding these foods to your diet is a high-calorie way to modestly reduce cholesterol. Youíll need to eliminate the added calories somewhere else in your diet, or the resulting weight gain will counteract the cholesterol-lowering effect.
Trying to juggle a daily intake from different foods containing plant sterols and stanols could get complicated and lead to higher-than-recommended doses. Exceeding the 2-gram target doesnít offer any extra benefit. Whatís more, no one knows the long-term effects of getting too much.
The bottom line: Plant sterols and stanols canít counteract unhealthy choices like smoking or a high-fat diet, so use them as part of a package of healthy choices.